Laws Relating to Sexual Misconduct
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
Title IX was first introduced in 1972 and protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities which receive Federal financial assistance. Title IX states that:
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Examples of the types of discrimination that are covered under Title IX include sexual harassment, the failure to provide equal opportunity in athletics, and discrimination based on pregnancy. To enforce Title IX, the U.S. Department of Education maintains an Office for Civil Rights, with headquarters in Washington, DC and 12 offices across the United States.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. Title IX and Sex Discrimination.
Jeanne Clery Act
Originally known as the Campus Security Act, the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act is the landmark federal law that requires colleges and universities across the United States to disclose information about crime on and around their campuses. The law is tied to an institution's participation in federal student financial aid programs and it applies to most institutions of higher education both public and private. The Clery Act is enforced by the United States Department of Education.
Violence Against Women Act Reauthorization Act of 2013 (VAWA)
Under VAWA, colleges and universities are required to:
• Report domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking, beyond crime categories the Clery Act already mandates;
• Adopt certain student discipline procedures, such as for notifying purported victims of their rights; and
• Adopt certain institutional policies to address and prevent campus sexual violence, such as to train in particular respects pertinent institutional personnel.