U.S. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT - HISTORY OF INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS AND GUIDEBOOK:
On September 30, 1978, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research submitted its report entitled "The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research." The Report, named after the Belmont Conference Center at the Smithsonian Institution where the discussions which resulted in its formulation were begun, sets forth the basic ethical principles underlying the acceptable conduct of research involving human subjects. Those principles, respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, are now accepted as the three quintessential requirements for the ethical conduct of research involving human subjects.
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION - ETHICAL GUIDELINES:
The 2003 Ethics Code became effective June 1, 2003 and was published in the December 2002 issue of the American Psychologist. Hard copies of the Code are also available from the APA Order Department, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242.
AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION - ETHICAL GUIDELINES:
The American Sociological Association's (ASA's) Code of Ethics sets forth the principles and ethical standards that underlie sociologists' professional responsibilities and conduct. These principles and standards should be used as guidelines when examining everyday professional activities. They constitute normative statements for sociologists and provide guidance on issues that sociologists may encounter in their professional work.