About Dr. Zettler

Education   Ph.D. Clemson University (Plant Physiology, 1994)
    B.S. University of Florida (Agriculture, 1987)
Affiliations   Research Associate, The Morton Arboretum (Lisle, IL)
    Orchid Specialist Group (North American Region), World Conservation Union
    Research Committee, American Orchid Society
Courses   BIO 109 – Plants & Society   BIO 201 - Botany
    BIO 112 - General Biology II   BIO 309 – Introduction to Research
    BIO 350 – Entomology   BIO 325 - Tropical Ecology (Costa Rica)
Other Duties   Curator, Illinois College Herbarium
    Curator, Illinois College Insect Collection
    Manager, Living Plant Collection (Parker Science Greenhouse)
Biological Illustrator   Dragonflies of North America (2000, Scientific Publishers,
ISBN 0-945417-94-2)
    The Black Flies of North America (2004, Cornell Univ. Press,
ISBN 0-8014-2498-4)



(authors denoted by an asterisk * reflect undergraduate student)

Zettler, LW and JE Fairey, III. 1990. The status of Platanthera integrilabia (Correll) Luer, an endangered terrestrial orchid. Lindleyana 5: 212-217.

Zettler, LW and TM McInnis, Jr. 1992. Propagation of Platanthera integrilabia (Correll) Luer, an endangered terrestrial orchid, through symbiotic seed germination. Lindleyana 7: 154-161.

Zettler, LW and TM McInnis, Jr. 1993. Symbiotic seed germination and development of Spiranthes
cernua (L.) Rich. and Goodyera pubescens (Willd.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae: Spiranthoideae). Lindleyana 8: 155-162.

Zettler, LW and TM McInnis, Jr. 1994. Light enhancement of symbiotic seed germination and development of an endangered terrestrial orchid (Platanthera integrilabia). Plant Science 102: 133-138.

Zettler, LW. 1994. Extinction in our own backyard. American Orchid Society Bulletin 63: 686-688.

Zettler, LW, F Barrington*, and TM McInnis, Jr. 1995. Developmental morphology of Spiranthes odorata (Orchidaceae) in symbiotic culture. Lindleyana 10: 211-216.

Zettler, LW, NS Ahuja, and TM McInnis, Jr. 1996. Insect pollination of the endangered monkey-face orchid (Platanthera integrilabia) in McMinn Co., Tennessee - one last glimpse of a once common spectacle. Castanea 61: 14-24.

Zettler, LW. 1996. Just how safe are our terrestrial orchid preserves? Orchids 65(2): 156-159.

Zettler, LW and CJ Hofer*. 1997. Sensitivity of Spiranthes odorata seeds to light during in vitro symbiotic seed germination. Lindleyana 12: 26-29.

Zettler, LW. 1997. Terrestrial orchid conservation by symbiotic seed germination: techniques and perspectives. Selbyana 18: 188-194.

Currah, RS, LW Zettler, and TM McInnis, Jr. 1997. Epulorhiza inquilina sp. nov. from Platanthera (Orchidaceae) and a key to Epulorhiza species. Mycotaxon 61: 335-342.

Zettler, LW. 1997. Orchid-fungal symbiosis and its value in conservation. McIlvainea 13: 40-45.

Zettler, LW, T Wilson Delaney* and JA Sunley*. 1998. Seed propagation of the epiphytic green-fly orchid (Epidendrum conopseum) using its endophytic fungus. Selbyana 19: 249-253.

Zettler, LW and CJ Hofer*. 1998. Propagation of the little club-spur orchid (Platanthera clavellata) by symbiotic seed germination, and its ecological implications. Environmental and Experimental Botany 39: 189-195.

Zettler, LW. 1999. Orchids go native. Orchids 68(1): 14-21.

Zettler, LW, JC Burkhead*, and JA Marshall*. 1999. Use of a mycorrhizal fungus from Epidendrum conopseum to propagate Encyclia tampensis from seed in vitro. Lindleyana 14: 102-105.

Zettler, LW, JA Sunley*, and T Wilson Delaney*. 2000. Symbiotic seed germination of an orchid in decline (Platanthera integra) from the Green Swamp, North Carolina. Castanea 65: 207-212.

Yoder, JA, LW Zettler, and SL Stewart*. 2000. Water requirements of terrestrial and epiphytic orchid seeds and seedlings, and evidence for water uptake by means of mycotrophy. Plant Science 156: 145-150.

Zettler, LW, SL Stewart*, ML Bowles, and KA Jacobs. 2001. Mycorrhizal fungi and cold-assisted symbiotic germination of the Federally threatened eastern prairie fringed orchid, Platanthera leucophaea (Nuttall) Lindley. American Midland Naturalist 145: 168-175.

Bowles, ML, KA Jacobs, LW Zettler, and T Wilson Delaney*. 2002. Crossing effects on seed viability and experimental germination of the Federal threatened eastern prairie fringed orchid, Platanthera leucophaea (Nuttall) Lindley. Rhodora 104: 14-30.

Stewart*, SL, and LW Zettler. 2002. Symbiotic germination of three semi-aquatic rein orchids (Habenaria macroceratitis, H. quinqueseta, H. repens) from Florida. Aquatic Botany 72: 25-35.

Sharma, J, LW Zettler, JW Van Sambeek, M Ellerseck, and CJ Starbuck. 2003. Symbiotic seed germination and mycorrhizae of Federally-threatened Platanthera praeclara (Orchidaceae). American Midland Naturalist 149: 79-95.

Sharma, J, LW Zettler, and CJ Starbuck. 2003. A survey of mycobionts of Federally-threatened Platanthera praeclara (Orchidaceae). Symbiosis 34: 145-155.

Yoder, JA, PE Hanson, LW Zettler, JB Benoit, F Ghisays, and KA Piskin*. 2003. Internal and external mycoflora of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) and its ecological implications. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69: 4994-4996.

Yoder, JA, PE Hanson, F Ghisays, JB Benoit, and LW Zettler. 2003. Moisture requirements of the soil imperfect fungus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, in relation to its tick host. International Journal of Acarology 29: 271-277.

Yoder, JA, JB Benoit, and LW Zettler. 2003. Effects of salt and temperature on the growth rate of a tick-associated fungus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (Deuteromycota). International Journal of Acarology 29: 265-269.

Stewart*, SL, LW Zettler, J Minso*, and PM Brown. 2003. Symbiotic germination and reintroduction of Spiranthes brevilabris Lindley, an endangered orchid native to Florida. Selbyana 24: 64-70.

Yoder, JA, JB Benoit, EJ Rellinger, SA Murray, and LW Zettler. 2004. Water balance of a tick-fungus relationship, featuring the life cycle of the fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (Saac.) Bainier (Deuteromycota) in a tick host. International Journal of Acarology 30: 93-101.

Benoit, JB, JA Yoder, D Sammataro, and LW Zettler. 2004. Mycoflora and fungal vector capacity of the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies. International Journal of Acarology 30: 103-106.

Benoit, JB, JA Yoder, LW Zettler, and HH Hobbes, III. 2004. Mycoflora of a trogloxenic cave cricket, Hadenoecus cunberlandicus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae), from two small caves in northeastern Kentucky. Arthropod Biology 97: 989-993.

Yoder, JA, JB Benoit, and LW Zettler. 2004. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis affords protection from secondary fungus infection in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae): inference from competitive fungal interactions in vitro. International Journal of Acarology 30: 375-381.

Zettler, LW. 2005. Nature’s fungus connoisseurs: new insight into the mysterious orchid-fungal association. Orchids 74(4): 292-297.

Bowles, ML, LW Zettler, TJ Bell, and P. Kelsey. 2005. Relationships between soil characteristics, distribution, and restoration potential of the Federal threatened eastern prairie fringed orchid, Platanthera leucophaea (Nutt.) Lindl. American Midland Naturalist 154: 273-285.

Zettler, LW, KA Piskin*, SL Stewart*, JJ Hartsock*, ML Bowles, and TJ Bell. 2005. Protocorm mycobionts of a Federally threatened orchid, Platanthera leucophaea, and a technique to promote leaf formation in seedlings. Studies in Mycology 53: 163-171.

Zettler, LW, S Perlman, DJ Dennis*, SE Hopkins*, and SB Poulter*. 2005. Symbiotic germination of the Federally endangered Hawaiian endemic, Platanthera holochila (Orchidaceae) using a mycobiont from Florida: a conservation dilemma. Selbyana 26(1,2): 269-276.

Zettler, LW, SB Poulter*, KI McDonald*, and SL Stewart. 2007. Conservation-driven propagation of an epiphytic orchid (Epidendrum nocturnum) with a mycorrhizal fungus. HortScience 42(1): 135-139.

Massey*, EE and LW Zettler. 2007. An expanded role for in vitro symbiotic seed germination as a conservation tool: two case studies in North America (Platanthera leucophaea and Epidendrum nocturnum). Proceedings of the 3rd International Orchid Conservation Congress, Lankesteriana 7(1,2): 303-308.

Zettler, LW. 2007. The Orchid Recovery Program at Illinois College - a successful blend of teaching, research, and undergraduate student participation to benefit orchid conservation. Proceedings of the 3rd International Orchid Conservation Congress, Lankesteriana 7(1,2): 436-439.

Yoder, JA, Benoit, JB, DL Denlinger, JL Tank, and LW Zettler. 2008. An endosymbiotic conidial fungus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, protects the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, from desiccation imposed by an entomopathogenic fungus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 97: 119-127.

Yoder, JA, JB Benoit, and LW Zettler. 2008. The giant Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gomphadorhina portentosa) as a carrier of antagonistic moulds: concerns arising from its use in a public setting. Mycoses 51(2): 95-98.

Zettler, LW. 2008. An overview of the orchid fungal association, and its application to orchid conservation in the Americas. Proceedings of the 19th World Orchid Conference, Miami, FL, p. 315-318.

Yoder, JA, MJ Chambers, MR Condon, JB Benoit, and LW Zettler. 2009. Regulation of the external mycoflora of the giant Madagascar hissing-cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa, by its mite associate, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi, and its implications on human health. Symbiosis 47: 93-98.

Aggarwal, S. and LW Zettler. 2010. Reintroduction of an endangered terrestrial orchid (Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo) assisted by symbiotic seed germination: first report from the Indian subcontinent. Nature and Science Journal 8(10): 139-145.

Yoder, JA, SM Imfeld, DJ Heydinger, CE Hart, MH Collier, KM Gribbins, and LW Zettler. 2010. Comparative water balance profiles of Orchidaceae seeds for epiphytic and terrestrial taxa endemic to North America. Plant Ecology 211: 7-17.

Keel, BG, LW Zettler, and BA Kaplin. 2011. Seed germination of Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae) in situ beyond its range, and its potential for assisted migration imposed by climate change. Castanea 76(1):43-54.
Zettler, LW and KA Piskin. 2011.Mycorrhizal fungi from protocorms, seedlings, and mature plants of the eastern prairie fringed orchid, Platanthera leucophaea: A comprehensive list to augment conservation. American Midland Naturalist 166:29-39.
Yoder, JA, JB Benoit, and LW Zettler. Competition in vitro among fungi acquired from the exoskeleton of the giant Madagascar hissing-cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa, and its relevance to human health. Fungal Ecology (in press).
Sadler*, JJ, JM Smith*, LW Zettler, H. T. Alborn, and LW Richardson. 2011. Fragrance composition of Dendrophylax lindenii (Lindley) Bentham ex Rolfe (Orchidaceae), using a novel technique applied in situ. European Journal Environmental Science 1(2): 131-141 (in press).
Zettler, L.W., L.L. Corey, L.W. Richardson, A.Y. Ross*, and L. Moller-Jacobs*. 2011. Protocorms of an epiphytic orchid, (Epidendrum amphistomum A. Richard) recovered in situ, and subsequent identification of associated mycorrhizal fungi using molecular markers. European Journal Environmental Sciences 1(2): 108-114 (in press).
Zettler, JA, LW Zettler and LW Richardson. 2012. Pestiferous insects (Hemiptera), on native epiphytic orchids in South Florida: a new threat posed by introduced species. Southeastern Naturalist (in press).
Zettler, LW, EM Wood*, LJAN Johnson*, A Kirk*, and S Perlman. 2011. Seed propagation and re-introduction of the U.S. Federally endangered Hawaiian endemic, Platanthera holochila (Hbd.) Krz. (Orchidaceae). European Journal Environmental Sciences. 1(2): 80-94 (in press).
Yoder, JA, JB Benoit, BZ Hedges, AE Rosselot, AJ Jajack, and LW Zettler. Madagascar hissing-cockroach mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi, prevents fungal infection in its cockroach host: evidence for mutualistic symbiosis. International Journal of Acarology (in press).
Ray*, HA J McCormick*, AL Stice, I Stocks, and LW Zettler. Occurrence of Boisduval scale, Diaspisboisduvalii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on native epiphytic orchids in Collier,Co., Florida, including Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve. (in review).
Zettler, LW and SP Perlman. 2012. Platanthera holochila - Hawaii's rarest native orchid and the battle to save it. Orchids (in press).
Zettler, LW and H Oppenheimer. 2012. Hawaii's three native orchids: a closer look. Orchids (submitted).

Book Chapters

Zettler, LW. 1996. Symbiotic seed germination of terrestrial orchids in North America - a progress report. In, Proceedings of the North American Native Terrestrial Orchid Conference - Propagation and Production, edited by C Allen. National Arboretum, Washington, D.C. (ISBN 0-9655075-0-5).

Zettler, LW, J Sharma, and F Rasmussen. 2003. Mycorrhizal Diversity (Chapter 11, pp. 185-203). In, Orchid Conservation, edited by K Dixon, SP Kell, RL Barrett, and PJ Cribb. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. (ISBN 983-812-078-2) .

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